X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
In X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), also called electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), X-rays excite photoelectrons, and the emitted electron signal is plotted as a spectrum of binding energies. Differing chemical states resulting from compound formation are reflected in the photoelectron peak positions and shapes. Spectral information is collected from a depth of 2-20 atomic layers, depending on the material studied. MRL has two instruments for X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The strength of XPS is its ability to identify different chemical states. This ability is useful in a range of physical studies, for example, oxidation/corrosion products, adsorbed species, and thin-film growth processes.