X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Reflectivity (XRR)

Instrumentation for X-ray Diffraction:

  • Siemens/Bruker D-5000
  • PANalytical / Philips X’pert MRD system # 1
  • PANalytical / Philips X’pert MRD system # 2
  • Rigaku D/Max-b
  • Data analysis software


Staff Contact

Mauro Sardela
(217) 244-0547

Instrumentation

The following instruments for data acquisition and software packages for data analysis are available in the X-ray analysis lab. Please contact lab staff for further details, for training, lab tour or a demo.

Location

148 Materials Research Laboratory
(217) 265-6799
 

Siemens/Bruker D-5000

Radiatio /wavelength: Cu K-alpha, 0.15418 nm

Features: theta/theta vertical goniometer system with optional spinner (phi) rotation (Bragg Brentano configuration)

Main optics: soller slits, divergence slit, scatter slit, receiving slit, detector slit, curve graphite monochromator, scintillation detector

Applications:

  • Powder and polycrystalline bulk materials; limited applicability to soft samples.
  • Phase identification, composition quantification, crystallographic structure determination
  • Crystallite / grain size and strain analysis.
  • Limited texture (preferred orientation) analysis.


PANalytical / Philips X’pert MRD system # 1

Radiation / wavelength: Cu K-alpha 1, 0.154056 nm (high-resolution) or Cu K-alpha, 0.15418 nm (Bragg-Brentano)

Features: theta/2theta vertical four-circle system with phi, psi rotations and x,y,z sample translation.

Main Optics

  • Option 1: high-resolution parallel beam configuration with hybrid mirror with x-ray mirror and 2-bounce monochromator (beam divergence = 30 arc-sec), high-speed line detector PIXcel© with scatter slit.
  • Option 2: high-speed Bragg-Brentano configuration with programmable divergence slit and high-speed line detector PIXcel© with scatter slit and Ni filter.
  • Other options: high-resolution configurations with x-ray mirror and 4-bounce Ge monochromator (beam divergence = 12 arc-sec) and/or open detector and/or triple-axis analyzer crystal (12 arc-sec acceptance).


Applications

  • High resolution rocking curve analysis.
  • High resolution analysis of lattice constant, strain, residual stress, crystallographic orientation, diffuse scattering, dislocation density, reciprocal lattice mapping. Typical materials: epitaxial thin films and single crystal materials.
  • X-ray reflectivity (thin film thickness, density, porosity, interface and surface roughness and correlation).
  • Ultra-fast Bragg-Brentano applications for samples with vertical mount: phase determination, crystallographic structure determination, etc.


PANalytical / Philips X’pert MRD system #2

Radiation / wavelength: Cu K-alpha, 0.15418 nm

Features: theta/2theta vertical four-circle system with phi, psi rotations and x,y,z sample translation

Main Optics

  • Point focus beam, crossed-slit collimator or x-ray lens, parallel plates collimator, flat graphite monochromator and proportional detector
  • Optional attachment: dome-shaped Anton Paar DHS900 hot stage for in-situ high temperature (up to 900°C) analysis under air or vacuum


Applications

  • Texture / preferred orientation and stress analysis.
  • Medium resolution / high-intensity analysis of lattice constant, strain, crystallographic orientation, diffuse scattering, dislocation density, reciprocal lattice mapping.
  • Typical materials: textured thin films and bulk materials.


Rigaku D/Max-b

Radiation / wavelength: Cu K-alpha, 0.15418 nm

Features: theta/2-theta horizontal goniometer system (Bragg Brentano configuration)

Main optics: soller slits, divergence slit, scatter slit, receiving slit, detector slit, curved graphite monochromator, scintillation detector

Applications

  • Polycrystalline bulk materials and some powder samples (vertical mount).
  • Phase identification, composition quantification, crystallographic structure determination.
  • Crystallite / grain size and strain analysis.
  • Limited texture (preferred orientation) analysis.

Data analysis software

  • PDF+4 powder diffraction files database from the International Center for Diffraction Data (fully updated every year)
  • ICSD (Inorganic Chemistry Structure Database) from FIZ/NIST (fully updated every year)
  • MDI Jade + with pattern analysis, profile fitting, search/match, crystallite / grain size and strain analysis, RIR analysis, whole pattern fitting and Rietveld refinement
  • PANalytical X’pert Reflectivity, Epitaxy, Stress, Texture and High Score
  • Bruker EVA